The Land of Javan Rhino

Perhaps it is nature’s will that the last sanctuary of the one-horned rhinoceros sondaicus or the Javan Rhino – the Banten Province – should resemble the shape of a rhino.

This rhino is probably the rarest large mammal species in the world, and is on the brink of extinction. Classified as critically endangered in IUCN Red List, no more than 50 individuals are estimated to survive in the wild, and there are none in captivity.

Only one population of Javan rhino survives in Indonesia, in Ujung Kulon (Pandeglang District, Banten Province) on the island of Java. The only other population in Vietnam has been declared as extinct. The Javan rhinoceros has been protected since 1931 in Indonesia.

Ujung Kulon National Park in south western side of Java has been designated for the conservation of this species in 1992.

Ecology and Habitat

Javan rhinos were once found inhabiting the areas surrounding all major volcanoes in west Java, some of which are 3,000m above sea level. During the 1960s an estimated 20-30 individuals remained in Ujung Kulon National Park. The population doubled from 1967 to 1978, after rigorous protection (supported in part by WWF-Indonesia) was put in place. Since the end of 1970s, population numbers appear to be stable with a growth rate at the average of 1% per year (maximum estimation).